These negative attitudes may lead to hostile verbal and physical acts against LGBTQ individuals with little apparent motivation except a strong illogical dislike. More than 90% of LGBTQ community report being targets of verbal abuse or threats, and more than one-third report being survivors of violence related to their sexual orientation
or gender identity. Rates of murder are highest among the transgender
Theories of “why” range from homophobia & transphobia being a” fear of what is unknown or fear of what is different” to “fervent religious convictions” and “sublimated feelings”.
Strong hostility exists as an offshoot of religiosity, because all non-heteronormative activities were associated historically with religious idolatry and heresy, and so were condemned by way of laws and customs that had their roots in religion not science or reason.
A 1996 study by Adams et al showed that individuals with homophobic beliefs demonstrate “significant sexual arousal” to male homosexual erotic stimuli such as pornography.
Sigmund Freud (1906) even theorized an exclusive heterosexual orientation does not only result from biological causes, but also is influenced by societal prohibitions on homoerotism and by early experiences with parents.
Some big effects of these “phobias” include less opportunities for connectedness to community which is part of good mental health; poorer health outcomes; higher rates of experiences of violence; and lower socio-economic opportunities.